What is a VPN and how does it work? A Non-Technical Beginner's Guide to Virtual Private Networks

What is a VPN?

A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a piece of software that changes your IP address and encrypts all of your internet traffic. This improves online privacy, security, and helps users to bypass online censorship imposed by the government, ISPs or any other organization or person blocking websites.

Benefits of using a VPN

There are several benefits of using a VPN service, these are as follows:

  1. Prevents your internet provider (ISP) from seeing what you get up to on the internet

    This also makes it very good at preventing blanket government surveillance of kind performed by the NSA.

    In addition to this, websites cannot see either your real IP address or who your ISP is. All they can see is the IP address of the VPN server, which is usually shared among many VPN users to further protect each individual user.

    Unlike ISPs, though, reputable VPN services do not keep logs of this information for later retrieval. Indeed, a good deal of privacy-focused VPN services go further, and also make of point of deleting all metadata connection logs which might be able to indirectly link customers to their activity on the internet.

  2. Prevents websites from seeing your IP address

    Your Internet Protocol Address or IP Address is how you are identified online. when Using a VPN this is replaced with the IP address of your VPN provider, making it more difficult for websites to identify you.

    This goes a long way towards protecting your privacy when surfing the web. And it also makes it more difficult for advertisers to target you with adverts.

  3. Defeat censorship

    A VPN lets you bypass censorship, be it by a repressive regime, or your college or office WiFi administrators.

    By connecting to a VPN, you can access blocked websites, simply by connecting to a VPN server located somewhere where the content is not censored.

  4. Allows you to access streaming services such as Netflix

    A VPN lets you access foreign streaming services that are blocked in your country - no matter where you are really located. Just connect to a VPN server in the country, and as far as the internet is concerned, you are there!

    For example, by connecting to a VPN server in the United States you can stream US Netflix content. The American version of the service has more TV shows and movies than any other countries Netflix catalog. You can also use a VPN to unblock Youtube videos, by getting around regional restrictions by pretending to be in a country the video is available in.

    Or, if you connect to a VPN server in the UK, you can watch BBC iPlayer abroad for free.

  5. Protects you from both hackers

    How do you know the WiFi at your local coffee shop is secure? Answer... you don’t. This goes for free public WiFi everywhere. And using insecure WiFi is an open invitation for criminal hackers to steal your sensitive data.

    A VPN will protect you when using all forms of public WiFi because your data is securely encrypted.

  6. Protects you when P2P torrenting

    When you use a VPN for torrenting your real IP address is shielded from peers downloading the same torrents. It also hides the content of what you download from your ISP and is handy for accessing blocked websites.

    When you use a VPN for torrenting your real IP address is shielded from peers downloading the same torrents. It also hides the content of what you download from your ISP and is handy for accessing blocked websites.

How to use a VPN

The mechanics of using a VPN are simple, and no matter which platform you use should go something like this:

  1. Sign-up for a VPN plan.
  2. Download and install the software. VPN software on desktop computers is often referred to as a VPN client while software for mobile devices is called a VPN app. In reality, they are the same thing and we treat the terms interchangeably.
  3. Run the client or app.
  4. Sign into the client or App with the login details you used when you purchased the subscription. 
  5. Many VPN apps feature a big friendly “Connect” button. Simply click on or tap it to connect to a nearby VPN server selected by your VPN provider. This will almost certainly provide the fastest VPN connection available. If you want to use a server in a different country, some VPNs have a map so you can simply click the country to want to connect to on the map. If your VPN doesn't have this, click the menu button and this will show you the list of VPN servers the VPN has. 

How does a VPN work?

When you install and run a VPN app, it connects to a VPN server run by a VPN provider. All data into and out of your device is securely encrypted and routed through this “VPN tunnel”.

How a VPN works

The VPN server, therefore, acts as a gateway between you and the internet. It prevents your ISP from seeing what you get up to on the internet, and it prevents websites on the internet from seeing who you are.

Your ISP is still needed to connect you to the VPN server, but because all data passing through the VPN tunnel to the VPN server is encrypted, it cannot see the contents of your data.

This deceptively simple setup provides lots of advantages…


Does a VPN make me anonymous?

No matter how a service advertises itself, VPNs provide privacy, not anonymity. This is mainly because the VPN server can see everything that your ISP normally can.

However, unlike your ISP, good VPNs do not log this information and therefore provide much higher levels of privacy than you normally have when surfing the internet. Even these, however, will start to log information if subpoenaed or issued a binding court order.

No VPN staff are going to risk jail for you! Does this mean VPNs are useless for privacy? Not at all. Such legal moves are highly targeted against individuals of interest, so are not a threat to the privacy of most ordinary VPN users.

The Edward Snowden’s of this world, however, who require very high levels of true anonymity, should use the Tor Network rather than VPNs to protect their identity.

How to configure your VPN?

VPN software is designed to be easy to use, and should “just work” without the need for any additional configuration. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. This is especially true if you have an IPv6 internet connection as many VPN apps struggle to handle the new internet standard correctly. It is therefore always a good idea to check that your VPN is correctly configured to protect you as it is supposed to.

What is a kill switch?

Thanks to the vagaries of the internet, VPN connections sometimes fail. In the normal course of events when this happens you will remain connected to the internet but without the protection of the VPN.

A kill switch protects you against this by preventing connections into and out of your device unless the VPN connection is active.

Will a VPN slow down my internet?

A VPN routes your data an extra leg to a VPN server, which must then spend processing power encrypting and decrypting the data. It is therefore inevitable that using a VPN will slow down your internet connection at least a little.

The two biggest factors at play are the distance to the VPN server and how loaded the VPN server is. If you connect to a server near to you which is not overloaded, then you can expect to lose around 10 percent of your base internet speed. However, the Fastest VPNs invest heavily in high-speed servers so you don't have to deal with a slow internet connection.

Do I need an ISP if I use a VPN?


An ISP, or Internet Service Provider, supplies your internet connection and is required to connect you to the VPN server.

Can I use a VPN on all my devices?

Every VPN provider allows you to install its software on as many devices as you like. Most, however, limit how many devices you can use at the same time with a single account. We refer to the number of devices a VPN allows you to use at once as the number of “simultaneous connections” it permits. 

VPNs typically allow around three to five simultaneous connections although this number can vary considerably.

The majority of VPN services offer iOS VPN apps as well as VPNs for Android users, however, it may be difficult to find support for less popular mobile operating systems. When it comes to computer clients, most VPN services support Windows and Mac users, but Linux VPN clients can be more difficult to find.

Can I get a free VPN?

For a long time, it was something of a truism that “if you don’t pay for a product then you are the product.” At best you could use a very limited free service that was little more than a taster for a paid-for service that might actually want to use.

This situation has changed over the last couple of years, and there are now at least a couple of free VPN services out there which are actually quite good. Even these are limited in various ways, though, compared to more premium services. We have found that cheap VPN services are among the best on the market. VPNs with the most sought after features can be found for less than $2 a month.

Does a VPN make me safe?

In short, Yes.

A VPN will make you safe from:

  • Public WiFi hackers
  • Your ISP
  • Mass government surveillance 
  • Commercial WiFi operators who sell your browsing habits for profit
  • Copyright holders
  • Advertising and analytics companies who store your data to target you with Ads (if used in combination with anti-tracker browser add-ons).

Written by: Douglas Crawford

Has worked for almost six years as senior staff writer and resident tech and VPN industry expert at ProPrivacy.com. Widely quoted on issues relating cybersecurity and digital privacy in the UK national press (The Independent & Daily Mail Online) and international technology publications such as Ars Technica.


orizu chibuike
on April 30, 2020
Hello Douglas is g USA VPN safe to download
Douglas Crawford replied to orizu chibuike
on May 1, 2020
Hi orizu. Are you talking about p2p downloading (torrenting)? If so, then yes - if the VPN allows torrenting. Many do allow torrenting, but not on US servers. If you mean more generally, then it depends on your threat model. If NSA=style blanket surveillance worries you then a US VPN service is probably not the best choice.
Mike Harper
on April 28, 2020
Hi. Do I just leave my VPN on all the time?
Douglas Crawford replied to Mike Harper
on April 28, 2020
Hi Mike. I do, to help prevent general website tracking and improve my day-to-day privacy on the web. Some people prefer to only enable the VPN when they feel they need it.
on April 16, 2020
I'm using a free VPN through a chrome extension. I wanted to know if I'm connected through this VPN, do all my devices connected to my WiFi router also utilize the VPN or just the Chrome Browser I've installed it on?
Douglas Crawford replied to KJ
on April 16, 2020
No. If you are using a Chrome Extention then not even all connections from your device are going through the VPN. Only your Chrome browser.
on April 5, 2020
I have a desktop computer and iPad and cell phone. With a family of four (3 others) We have a total of 7 additional devices within our home. oh and 4 smart televisions that all use internet TV, no more cable. How is all of this effected once I get a VPN? Does each person need their own or are we all using the same VPN through the router that is shared?
Douglas Crawford replied to Kapp
on April 6, 2020
Hi Kapp. Most VPN services allow you to connect multiple devices at once to their service, although there is usually a limit to this. We also refer to this as the number of simultaneous connections allowed and publish this information in all our reviews. (5 is about average these days, but some. If you want to protect all 7 devices with a VPN at the same time then you will need to find a VPN that allows 7 or more simultaneous connections. Fortunately, there are quite a few of these.
(Let's go with) Wyoming Willie replied to Douglas Crawford
on April 20, 2020
Hi Douglas, Thanks for the clarity on these things, solid explanations. I wanted to comment regarding Kapp's "... and 4 smart televisions that all use internet TV", since the typical consumer (the majority) don't recognize some scope issues. Of course, one would want to use VPN for privacy and security, especially sending top secret messages and such between work servers and such, or text to BFF, or surfing that one might like to keep private, if not anonymous. However, loading up a VPN with even one TV, never mind 4, is bizarre. If VPN is analogous to sending a letter by registered mail, then dumping TV traffic on a VPN is like sending a phone book by registered mail, one page at a time. It's not a matter of "it doesn't cost anything, why not". It unnecessarily consumes bandwidth, forcing providers into an escalation into higher bandwidth speeds. Our neighborhood is being turned in to a mud pit so Verizon can put in fiber, probably because someone needs multi-mega bandwidth speed for their 16K TV's. Next we'll hear someone comment that their IOT connected toaster burned the toast and IOT enabled refrigerator crashed and shutdown all because the VPN was too busy downloading the latest Netflix series in 4K HD for a 4" phone screen. I'm just saying.
Douglas Crawford replied to (Let's go with) Wyoming Willie
on April 21, 2020
Hi Wyoming ;). Good point. My reply focused on how many VPN connections you can run at once, and I failed to address your very valid point - that you need to consider why you want to run a VPN on your smart TV at all. As someone based outside the US, my answer is simple - so I can access the full US Netflix catalog (which is much larger than is available to UK viewers). With the right VPN service, this works perfectly on my Amazon TV set. If you live in the US, anyway, of course, this is not a useful feature. It should also bee said that Netflix is fairly unique among streaming services, in that a VPN will unblock it on devices such as smart TVs. streaming devices, and game consoles. This is not the case for most services, which use the devices geolocation features to detect when users are faking their IP addresses.
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