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5 Most Secure Browsers - Secure & Private Browsing

If you take your online privacy seriously, the first step is to download a private browser. 

Browsers such as Chrome, Edge, and Safari all collect user data. This includes; Browsing history, login credentials, cookies (placed by websites you visit), and auto-fill information (on login forms). This is used in order to create user profiles so that they can advertise to you further down the line. 

The safari, edge, and chrome alternatives in this article do not perform meaningful tracking (if any at all) for their developers, and many of them include built-in protection against tracking by websites.

Best private browsers


firefox browser

Firefox is a fast and private open-source browser, and it has been fully audited, which proves they do exactly what they say they do. It is developed by Mozilla Foundation, which is a non-profit organization.

Firefox is arguably at least as secure as Chrome. The new (ish) “Quantum” rendering engine has been built from the ground up to improve speeds and includes Tracking Protection built-in to the interface.

Firefox now also includes built-in protection against canvas fingerprinting, the most common form of browser fingerprinting.

Firefox is streaks ahead of its mainstream competition, as it does not track your web browsing to target ads at you.

Tor Browser

tor browser

Tor Browser was designed to provide secure access to the Tor anonymity network. Tor Browser is based on Firefox but with additional security features. 

Key features include:

  • Uses HTTPS Everywhere and NoScript (all scripts disabled by default) plugins
  • Blocks other browser plugins such as Flash, RealPlayer, and QuickTime
  • Uses Disconnect.me as its default search engine
  • Always uses Private Browsing mode (tracking protection, no browsing history, passwords, search history, cookies or cached web content saved)


waterfox browser

Waterfox is an open-source browser based on Firefox. In many ways, it is fairly plain vanilla Firefox 56, and there are no plans to move beyond that. This means that it supports both legacy Firefox add-ons, and the new add-ons. It includes tracking protection and will sync with your regular Firefox account. Some stability issues have been reported with Waterfox, but these only affect a tiny minority of users. 

Waterfox is essentially a one-man project, and it seems to be doing a good job at ensuring that Waterfox incorporates the latest Firefox security patches. The problem is that these patches are for a different version of Firefox (currently 66.0.3). This could result in Firefox 56 (and earlier)-specific vulnerabilities being left unpatched.

Waterfox is available for Windows, macOS, Linux, and Android.


Brave browser

Unlike all the other browsers in this roundup, Brave is based on Chromium instead of Firefox. Chromium is the open-source code behind Chrome, with all the closed proprietary bits stripped out (at least in theory).

It comes with a built-in ad-blocker, tracking protection, script blocker, and HTTPS-Everywhere functionality. Brave also features one-click anti-fingerprinting and WebRTC leak protection. And anyone used to Chrome will feel at home instantly.

Despite all this, Brave is a controversial choice…

  • Brave helps to fund itself via an ad-replacement program. This replaces "bad ads” which include tracking pixels with “good ads” from its network partners. Participating in this program is opt-in, but detractors feel it adds to a problem that private browsers are supposed to be fixing.
  • The CEO of Brave Software is ex-Mozilla CEO and JavaScript inventor Brendan Eich. Eich was forced to stand down from Mozilla in 2014 after he donated $1,000 in support of California's Proposition 8, which attempted to prevent same-sex marriage for LGBTQ Californians. This has no relevance to the quality of the software of course, but you may wish to consider if you want financially benefit someone with these views by using his product.

Brave is available for Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, and iOS.

Pale Moon

Pale Moon browser

Pale Moon is a lightweight and highly customizable open source fork of Firefox. Unlike Waterfox, its code has separated completely from Firefox. It is compatible with many classic Firefox add-ons, but not all of them.

 It is not compatible with Firefox’s new WebExtensions add-ons, but it has a growing library of add-ons that have been rebuilt specifically for Pale Moon.

Much of Pale Moon has been updated with code from more recent versions of Firefox, but its user interface remains the highly customizable XUL-based front-end last seen in Firefox 28. This includes support for a wide range of custom themes and skins.

Pale Moon does not offer any "special privacy features” as such, but it doesn't contain dubious, privacy-invading software, included in other mainstream browsers.

Although it provides a “close adherence to official web standards and specifications” Pale Moon is still working on full support for HTML5 and CSS3, so it can struggle when rendering some web pages.

Some users say that it lags behind with security updates, but this is very unfair. It can take up to a week before Mozilla allows the Pale Moon developers access to its latest patches, but these are always implemented as soon as possible and are always up-to-date.

Pale Moon is available for both Windows and Linux.

Firefox Focus

firefox focus

Firefox Focus is a private browser for Android and iOS. Key features include tracking protection and ad-blocking (using the Disconnect block list).  All browsing is effectively performed in Private Mode, so no browsing records are stored locally.

It is also a very stripped-down browser, and so does not have all the unwanted “features” found in full Firefox.

On the day-to-day usability front, however, its lack of full support for tabbed browsing makes Firefox Focus difficult to recommend. Tabbed browsing is now supported, but only by right-clicking on an existing link -> Open link in new tab. 

The fact that you are permanently in Private Mode also means that passwords and logins are not saved between sessions (although this problem is mitigated in iOS by keyboard access to Keychain). 

Another major issue is that about: config is not accessible in Firefox Focus. This means you cannot disable WebRTC, which makes VPN users potentially susceptible to WebRTC leaks.

IceCat and IceWeasel

icecat browser

GNU IceCat is just Firefox with the trademarked branding removed to comply with the GNU Project’s free software guidelines.

It will block third-party zero-length image files, also known as web bugs. It will also detect and block non-free JavaScript, and has the option to set a different user agent string each for different domains in about:config. This is good for defeating browser fingerprinting.

IceWeasel is very similar to IceCat, except for Debian (Linux) and without IceCat’s additional privacy features. Now that Firefox has returned to Debian, IceWeasel is no longer maintained. IceWeasel is based on an older (pre-Quantum) version of Firefox, but Icecat is based on the latest Firefox ESR. This means it can use up-to-date Firefox add-ons and has a Quantum speed boost.

IceCat is available for GNU/Linux, Windows(unofficial build), Android and macOS (self-compiled).


SeaMonkey Browser

SeaMonkey, like Pale Moon, uses Firefox code and the Gecko rendering engine. However, It is different from all the other services in our private browser list. 

It incorporates a browser, an email and newsgroup client and a WYSIWYG HTML editor. Some might argue this makes it very bloated, but most modern hardware can handle the bloat easily.

SeaMonkey is great for those who want an old-school internet experience, but in terms of updates and security patches, it lags behind Firefox.

Concerns with Regular Web Browsers

Commercial browsers such as Chrome, Edge, and Safari all pose privacy concerns.

Google is a company that fully cooperated with the NSA in its PRISM mass surveillance program.

Google has a detailed breakdown of how Chrome affects your privacy, but essentially, Chrome is just spyware for Google. Although Chrome does offer user-controlled privacy settings, they are hidden away in the browser, and users have manually to opt-out of features that invade their privacy.

Even with all user-controlled privacy settings locked down, there is every reason not to trust Google to not spy on you, anyway.

This is the same for all other commercial browsers. Microsoft also collects user data, and it has been reported they also have worked with the NSA, so it’s Edge and Internet Explorer browsers cannot be trusted.

Apple is primarily a hardware manufacturer, so does not rely on advertising revue as its business model. It also has a robust global privacy policy. It did participate in the NSA’s PRISM program, however, and Safari is closed source.

Opera is now owned by a Chinese consortium and clearly states in its Privacy policy that it collects a fair amount of data which “may be considered personal”.

Crucially, all these popular browsers are closed source. This means that there is no way to verify that they contain no creepy code or are otherwise not doing something they shouldn’t.

Is private browsing mode secure?

All modern browsers feature a private or incognito mode. It is important to understand what this feature does because its name is in many ways quite misleading. This can result in people surfing the internet while wrongly thinking their privacy is protected in ways that it is not.

So what does private browsing mode do?

Private browsing mode is primarily aimed at preventing people who have direct physical access to your computer (such as family members) from seeing what you have been up to online. When using private mode:

  • Websites you visit are not saved to your browser history
  • Searches are not saved locally
  • Form data is not saved locally
  • Cookies are deleted when the session ends
  • Your browsing sessions are isolated from your regular sessions

By deleting cookies between sessions private browsing mode does usefully prevent some basic tracking by websites, but the benefits of this are easily overstated.

What does provide mode not do?

Basically, private mode does not make you private on the internet:

  • Websites can see your unique internet (IP) address
  • Websites cannot track you using cookies but can track you using browser fingerprinting canvas fingerprinting, and various other methods
  • Your internet provider (ISP) can see every website you visit on the internet
  • Downloaded files and bookmarks made in private mode are saved as normal
  • Keyloggers and malware installed on your system can track everything you do online

The takeaway

If you want to hide birthday present shopping from your spouse on a family computer or hide your adult viewing habits on a shared laptop, private mode is great. It is, after all, often referred to as porn mode for a reason!

What it does not do is provide any meaningful privacy (let alone anonymity) from your ISP or anyone watching on the internet. For this, you need to use a VPN to hide your IP address, and various browser add-ons to prevent web tracking (which may or may not be bundled with the privacy browsers discussed above). 

All the browsers in this list are open source and provide much more privacy than Chrome, Edge/Internet Explorer or Safari.

Written by: Douglas Crawford

Has worked for almost six years as senior staff writer and resident tech and VPN industry expert at ProPrivacy.com. Widely quoted on issues relating cybersecurity and digital privacy in the UK national press (The Independent & Daily Mail Online) and international technology publications such as Ars Technica.


  1. Sven

    on October 17, 2019

    What do you think about Iridium browser? I've a smoother experience with Chromium based browsers than with FireFox or FireFox based browsers. Iridium is open source and the developers are doing everything that's possible to break the links with Google. I've run into it a few days ago when I was looking for a Linux web browser similar as Bromite for Android. Iridium can be installed on Windows, MacOS and Linux. They have a Github page with all the things they have done for privacy and security. I'm trying this browser on my Linux with Adsorber - similar to Adaway - installed and without any extensions installed. I'm not sure if I'm going to install any extensions as it seems I don't need to. f.e. webrtc leak test shows my vpn ip in this browser. Curious about your thoughts.

    1. Douglas Crawford replied to Sven

      on October 18, 2019

      Hi Sven. I must admit that I am not familiar with Iridium, although it does sound good. When I have a moment I'll look into it, and if appropriate, add it to this article.

  2. Barries

    on August 2, 2019

    Thanks for good overview. I'm no fundi, but for years been following the development of "safety over the internet" The main issue for me lies with the user. No matter how safe and secure a browser is, when you use it off guard you may find yourself in trouble. Brave for me is by far the number ONE browser. It's lightning fast (tested on different benchmark platforms) just because it doesn't "carry" al the different extensions and add ons.........they're already built in. The BAT way of allowing adds is optional. I do find these personal remarks towards Brendan Eich very unfortunate and it does not add to the very essence of the discussion: "but you may wish to consider if you want financially benefit someone with these views by using his product.

  3. Bob Jones

    on July 27, 2019

    What is your opinion of the Opera browser?

    1. Douglas Crawford replied to Bob Jones

      on July 29, 2019

      Hi Bob. The problem with Opera browser is that it is not open source. While there is no particular reason to think Opera Software AS is doing anything untoward, there is no way to verify this.

      1. Enrique replied to Douglas Crawford

        on August 1, 2019

        Hi Douglas, in that case Brave is not open source, it is based on Chronium but like Opera the final product have some tweaks and tricks all over. Are you Agreed?

        1. Douglas Crawford replied to Enrique

          on August 2, 2019

          Hi Enrique. Brave is 100% open source but is built on Chomium. Chromium is 100% open source, but the code is so complex that nobody has ever fully audited it (or are likely to). And for many people, distrust of Google is so deep-rooted that they will never trust any code written by it.

      2. Enrique replied to Douglas Crawford

        on August 1, 2019

        Or is becasuse is now owned by Chinese company? I really like Opera, all the features, speed, performance etc. But i never do online banking or purchases (credit card numbers) on it. For that i use Chrome or FF, i dont know why. Thoese Chinese and Rusian tendencis to spy on other countries makes me doubt, even if they claim that they are ruled by Norwegian and Europe privacy law.

        1. Douglas Crawford replied to Enrique

          on August 2, 2019

          And that :). :. But mainly because its not open source.

  4. Casper

    on July 21, 2019

    I was very surprised you would list Firefox as a secure browser, that's laughable! After my own tests using WireShark I can assure you Firefox is right up their with Chrome when it comes to collecting user data & profiling. From the moment I started the Firefox browser & with a blank start page to boot. Firefox filled WireSharks logs with thousands of connections in the first few minutes. After sorting through the Wireshark logs I placed about tw0 dozen IP addresses in my host file. After that when I started Firefox it took a good 15 minutes to load & once loaded it was pretty much rendered useless. All because I wouldn't allow it to make those connections to it's servers & all the partner servers. Mozilla is also a Google partner which should have been your first clue of what to expect from the Firefox browser.

    1. Douglas Crawford replied to Casper

      on July 22, 2019

      Hi Casper. Firefox is the only open-source mainstream browser. It's not perfect, which is why we recommend that you harden it further (https://proprivacy.com/guides/firefox-privacy-security-guide), but it is the only alternative to Google which receives routine security updates. Yes, the other browsers listed this article also receive security updates, but these are based on the work performed by Mozilla (except for Brave, of course, which is based on Chromium). The reason this article exists is to make readers aware of the range of options available to them.

      1. Casper replied to Douglas Crawford

        on July 24, 2019

        Internet Explorer up to this point has been the only browser I've tested which doesn't call home or collect user data. Sadely that will end after 2019 as Microsoft support for IE ends. I continue to use Opera but it requires you utilize your host file & use a firewall like ZoneAlarm which can prevent out going connections on a per program basis. I would also like to point out web browsers & addons to web browsers are 100% ineffective at preventing tracking. The reason why is simple, web browsers, like all installed software reside at "Application layer 7" in the networking layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Layer 7 is the last layer, all connection requests to your device have already been recieved & acknowledged long before they reach layer 7 (your web browser or it's addons). The host file is the only means of preventing tracking as it resides at "Transport Layer 4". All connection requests & acknowledgments must go through Layer 4 which is why there is a host file present on all operating systems. Placing hostnames in the host file prevents your device from ever connecting to or acknowledging requests from the hostname in your host file.

        1. Douglas Crawford replied to Casper

          on July 24, 2019

          Hi Casper, Fwiw, I discuss host files here (https://proprivacy.com/guides/use-your-hosts-file-to-block-ads-and-malware). I agree that browser add-ons will not prevent a browser from "phoning home" (for the reasons you discuss), but they will help prevent tracking by websites and other third parties. So I would hardly call them 100% useless! As for Firefox- yes, by default it does share some data with Mozilla (https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/privacy/firefox/) but can opt-out of sharing most of it (https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/share-data-mozilla-help-improve-firefox?redirectlocale=en-US&redirectslug=share-telemetry-data-mozilla-help-improve-firefox#w_how-do-i-opt-in-or-opt-out-of-sending-performance-data). Most importantly, though, Mozilla is not in the business of exploiting any data it does collect for profit.

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